These pages have been created from material presented to a refereeing seminar given by Keith Smith at Bristol (and later at Kingston Fencing Club).   The pages have been photocopied, scanned then OCR'd (converted to text by charcter recognition).   There will inevitably be errors which were not present in the original.

Article from the Sword, part 1

Article from the Sword, part 2

Hand signals

Faults and penalties

(list for overview)

Fundamentals of fencing

General hints for better refereeing

Epee refereeing hints

Foil refereeing hints

Sabre refereeing hints

Hand Signals
The material presented was copyright so is not reproduced here.
Instead, the material above is from another web site (
Also, here is a link to a page with a similar picture of hand signals:
Fencing Referee's Hand Signals (1996)
As viewed from behind the referee
ie left hand denotes left fencer; right hand denotes right fencers